WAVEcore®

WAVEcore®

Next-generation bioanalytical instruments for drug discovery and life sciences for both industry and academic research.

Side WAVE web

Label-free data like you've never seen before

The WAVEcore® houses our patented Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI) technology. Together with a temperature-controlled autosampler that can handle 2x 48-vial racks, 96- or 384-well plates or combinations thereof, the WAVEcore offers the sensitivity to work with low immobilization levels and large ligand-to-analyte molecular weight (MW) ratios.

Benefit from GCI technology

Technology comparison table

Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI)
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
Biolayer Interferometry (BLI)
Broadest application range
Suitable for a variety of molecules ranging from low to high molecular weights, purified or crude.
Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI)
Yes
Suitable for Fragments, Small Molecules, Peptides, Proteins, Viruses, Cell Culture Supernatants, Serums, Cell lysates
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
No
Suitable for Small Molecules, Peptides (limited suitability for Fragments, Viruses, Cell Culture Supernatants, Serums, Cell lysates)
Biolayer Interferometry (BLI)
No
Suitable for Cell Culture Supernatants, Serums, Cell lysates (limited suitability for Peptides, Proteins, Viruses)
Measure weakest binders
Ability to measure kinetics with fast off-rates thanks to fast fluidics and high acquisition rates.
Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI)
Yes
Off-rates up to
kd=10 s-1
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
No
Off-rates up to
kd=1 s-1
Biolayer Interferometry (BLI)
No
Off-rates up to
kd=0.1 s-1
Measure tightest binders
Ability to accurately measure kinetics even for tight binders and fast on-rates.
Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI)
Yes
Measurement under flow conditions
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
Yes
Measurement under flow conditions
Biolayer Interferometry (BLI)
No
Measurement under diffusion-limited conditions (no microfluidics)
Low system maintenance
Little downtime due to service or unexpected repairs.
Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI)
Yes
No-clog microfluidics
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
No
Traditional microfluidics
Biolayer Interferometry (BLI)
Yes
No microfluidics

High sensitivity

GCI differs from SPR in how the refractive index change is read out. In SPR, the surface plasmon is quickly attenuated and can pick up signal only from few interactions. In GCI, each photon travels through the whole waveguide, and hence can pick up the signals from much more interactions, resulting in an intrinsically higher sensitivity.

In addition, the waveguide’s evanescent field penetrates less into the bulk, minimizing disturbances caused by bulk refractive index changes. Refractive index changes at the sensor surface are measured as time-dependent phase-shift signals. This allows for superior high signal-to-noise ratios, measurement of kinetics (ka, kd) and affinity (KD) from low pM to low mM, from signals below 1 pg/mm2 (equivalent to <1RU), for higher sensitivity and confident kinetic analysis.

Large Ligand-to-Analyte Molecular Weight Ratios

Sensitivity is often limiting for accurate and reliable kinetic analysis of molecular interactions between large drug targets and small molecule inhibitors. Large target-to-analyte molecular weight ratios present a big challenge for traditional label-free interaction analysis and can significantly impact data quality. The Creoptix WAVE is compatible with the high ligand-to-analyte molecular weight ratios, providing outstanding resolution and reliable kinetics with at low immobilization levels for target-to-analyte molecular weight ratios for up to >1000:1. The outcome is increased sensitivity to accurately measure low-potency small molecules or fragments, or targets with low activity.

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More Signal, Less Noise

GCI produces an evanescent field that penetrates less deep into the bulk than SPR, minimizing the disturbance caused by bulk refractive index changes. This reduction in noise leads to superior signal-to-noise ratios.

Robust Readout

Our patented GCI technology creates an interference readout in the time-domain and within the waveguide, instead of a space-domain signal being projected onto a CCD camera used with traditional waveguide interferometry methods. Measuring refractive index changes on the sensor surface as time-resolved phase-shift signals provides a more robust readout regardless of temperature drifts or vibrations, translating to superior resolution in signal and time.

Devices

Specs WAV Eall 2021

The WAVEsystem: Download the Specs Sheets

Frequently Asked Questions answered

  • How many experiments can I run in a day?

    • This depends largely on the nature of the experiment and the experimental goals. Standard workflows execute one kinetic experiment a day, beginning by setting up the assay with the necessary reagents and conditioning the WAVEchip to immobilize the ligand molecules. A typical experimental workflow involves ligand immobilization followed by a kinetic series with at least eight analyte concentrations in duplicate performed in a day. As the system allows for queueing up several kinetic series, and all the necessary analyte dilutions and reagents can be prepared in sealed 96- or 384-well microtiter plates in the autosampler, the kinetic measurements themselves can be performed hands-off overnight or even over the weekend without the need for supervision.

  • Can I perform concentration determination experiments with the Creoptix WAVEsystem?

    • Yes, the Creoptix WAVEsystem can be used for quantification studies. However, the limits of detection and quantification will depend largely on the assay conditions as well as on the type and characteristics of the interaction.

  • What is the smallest analyte the Creoptix WAVEsystem can measure?

    • There is not a fixed molecular weight (MW) limit for the analyte, as a lot depends on the MW ratio between the ligand and the analyte, together with the stoichiometry and the “cleanliness” of the system. We routinely measure methyl sulfonamide (90 Da) and we have also measured nickel ions (58 Da) as analytes, but the signal level with any analyte depends on how many binding sites are (or can be) available on the surface (MW ratio plus stoichiometry), while the lower limit of usable signal for kinetics depends on the noise level (cleanliness).

      The response in the Creoptix® WAVEsystem is ­­– as a rule of thumb – proportional to the MW of the measured molecule as well as to the number of molecules bound to the sensor. The high sensitivity of the Creoptix WAVEsystem allows for measuring robust sensorgrams at very low responses (< 1 pg/mm2), however, the maximal response (Rmax) of the system will depend on the number of immobilized ligand molecules / epitopes as well as the kinetics of the interaction. Generally, for ligand-analyte pairs with a large difference in MW (large MW ratio), the maximal response is more limited, as large ligands at the maximal density (saturation of the matrix) have fewer molecules (binding sites) available for interaction. The Creoptix WAVEsystem can provide robust binding responses for interactions with a MW ratio of up to 1:1000 (i.e. a 500 Da small molecular analyte binding to a 500 kDa protein) and 60 Da Nickel ions on protein layers.

  • What are the weakest and strongest affinities the Creoptix WAVEsystem can measure?

    • In a well optimized assay, the Creoptix WAVEsystem can measure very slow and very fast interaction rates, with the on-rate (kon) ranging from 103 to 106 M-1 s-1 and the off-rate (koff) ranging from 10-6 to 10 s-1. This allows for assessment of a very broad affinity range, from low pico- to sub-millimolar.

      In terms of practical considerations for experimental design, the limit for measurable high-affinity depends on the noise of the tested system, while the limit for measurable low-affinity is set by the solubility of the analyte.

  • What is the sample consumption of the Creoptix WAVEsystem compared to Cytiva’s Biacore & ForteBio’s Octet systems?

    • The Creoptix WAVEdelta has comparable sample consumption to the Cytiva’s Biacore systems (T200 and S200), while the Creoptix WAVEsystem has a dead volume (volume needed but not injected on the surface) of 50 µl that can be lowered to 15 µl when not performing kinetic measurements. The injected volumes are determined by flow rate multiplied by injection time, as on the Biacore, and are usually dictated by the assay. For quick binders, the per-injection volumes can be <70 µl per injection, while for captures the volumes can be as low as 30-40 µl per injection. In comparison, the ForteBio’s Octet RED96e and Octet QKe report sample volumes of 180-220 µl/well.

  • How do you know that 1 pg/mm2 on the Creoptix WAVEsystem equates to 1 RU in Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) devices?

  • What is the minimum pick-up volume of the WAVEsampler (autosampler)?

    • The minimum pickup volume is 25 µL. However, in a typical kinetic setup, due to the dead volume of 50 µL, the minimum pickup volume is 51 µL.

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  • How much protein do I need for a concentration determination experiment with the Creoptix WAVEsystem?

    • For ligands, Creoptix recommends 500 µL at 10-50 µg/mL, preferentially from a concentrated stock (50-100x). For analytes, 2 mL at 10x the KD (at minimum) can be enough for performing kinetics in duplicates.

  • How do I choose an appropriate immobilization/capture strategy for protein binding?

    • This depends on the ligand you are immobilizing/capturing. Biotinylated and His-tagged ligands can be captured on STA and NTA chips respectively. Alternatively, a suitable surface can be created for capture via whichever tag is present (e.g. coupling an anti-FLAG antibody to capture a FLAG-tagged ligand). Where there are no tags, amine-coupling or antibody capture is an option. Sometimes multiple approaches are required to achieve the best results.

      Generally speaking, IgG antibodies can be directly captured on PAG chips, while lipid-particles (e.g. liposomes) can be directly captured on LIP WAVEchips. Natural membranes (e.g. VLPs) can be captured by many different methods.

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Download WAVEsystem brochure

  • Faster, More Sensitive Kinetic Analysis

    WAVEsystem brochure

    The Creoptix™ WAVEsystem brochure explains how Grating-Coupled Interferometry (GCI), robust microfluidics, and automated software are combined in a single platform to provide a breakthrough level of kinetic analysis

    WAV Ebrochure Teaser

Interested in the Creoptix WAVEsystem?

Continue discovering the WAVEsystem

  • A sensor chip for every need

    WAVEchip®

    WAVEchip®- Innovative design and patented microfluidic cartridge to support crude samples, pathogenic samples, harsh solvents, and large particles up to 1000 nm normally only achieved with plate-based assays for kinetic analysis not possible before

    WAV Echip web landscape 3
  • Fast, intuitive, automated

    WAVEcontrol

    Move seamlessly from sample to data in a simple stepwise process, generating outputs at the touch of a button. Benefit from waveRAPID, a novel method implemented on the existing WAVEdelta instruments allowing you to obtain kinetics of an interaction by injections from a single well.

    WAVE Landscape web
  • Smooth operations

    WAVEcare

    Our WAVEcare programs offer carefree or basic support for high-quality kinetic data and unparalleled performance. Ensure the continuous, high performance operation of your WAVEsystem by choosing the program that fits your needs.

    WAV Eopen landscape web
  • It's how we see light

    Grating-Coupled Interferometry

    A distinguishing advantage of the WAVE is the patented Grating Coupled Interferometry (GCI) design. GCI is based on waveguide interferometry to determine kinetics, affinity, and concentrations of the interacting molecules.

    GCI CX Graph
  • It's how we measure kinetics

    waveRAPID®

    With no need for serial dilutions or DMSO corrections, set-up time is significantly reduced, runs are faster, and wells are freed up to run more samples.

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